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What is a Christian Book?

Dear Editor | What is a Christian Book?

What is a Christian Book?

This seems like a simple question to answer—and it can be, especially in non-fiction:

  • Bible studies and devotional books are clearly Christian in nature.
  • Memoirs or biographies of Christians are clearly Christian.
  • There are also a huge number of Christians writing in the self-help genre, ranging from obviously Christian topics such as improving your prayer life, to less obvious subjects such as diet.

The common thread is that Christian nonfiction uses the Bible as a reference or influence.

But there are still Christians writing nonfiction for the general market. For example Bear Grylls is outspoken about his Christian faith and his support of the evangelistic Alpha programme. But only one of his books—Soul Fuel, a devotional—is clearly Christian. He’s also written (or had ghostwritten) an autobiography, a wilderness survival guide, and several adventure novels for boys.

What is a Christian Book? This seems like a simple question to answer—and it can be with nonfiction. But defining Christian fiction isn't easy. #ChristianFiction #ChristianPublishing Click To Tweet

Defining Christian fiction isn’t as easy.

You only have to read the one-star reviews of some Christian novels to work that out. I’ve read novels that I thought were clearly Christian, then read reviews that question the genre classification (and sometimes even the author’s salvation). It’s clear that different people have different definitions.

Before attempting to define what Christian fiction is, I’m first going to define what it isn’t. Christian fiction isn’t:

  • Defined by the author
  • Defined by the publisher
  • Defined by an organisation
  • Defined by the bookseller
  • Defined by the content
  • Defined by the world view

Let’s look at each of these in turn.

Is Christian fiction Defined by the Author?

Some say Christian fiction is novels published by Christian authors, on the basis that as a Christian, your beliefs should come through in everything you write, “Christian fiction” or not:

Every story choice you make arises out of who you are, at the deepest levels of your soul; and every story you tell reveals who you are and the way you conceive the world around you.
– Characters and Viewpoint, Orson Scott Card

I understand the sentiment. I agree with it. But being a Christian doesn’t automatically make what you write ‘Christian’.

There are many Christian writers who are writing and publishing novels targeting the general market. Some of these authors started publishing in the Christian market and have moved into the general market (e.g. Deeanne Gist and Catherine West).

Others started in the general market before moving into the Christian market (e.g. Francine Rivers). Some have only ever written for the general market, and their books may or may not have underlying Christian messages (e.g. John Grisham and Debbie Macomber).

As Christians, we’re called to go into all the world and preach the gospel. Most non-Christians (even keen readers) wouldn’t knowingly pick up a Christian novel, so writing general market fiction that shows Christian values can be a way of reaching this new audience. I have no problem with this. If you’re called to write for the general market, then you need to ignore the naysayers and be obedient to your call.

I’ve also heard of some non-Christian writers working as ghostwriters, writing fiction that targets the Christian market. I’m less comfortable with this—I don’t have a problem with the concept of ghostwriting, but it feels dishonest for a Christian writer to knowingly hire a non-Christian writer and selling that product as “Christian fiction”.

No, Christian fiction isn’t defined by the author.

Is Christian Fiction Defined by the Publisher?

Some say Christian fiction is fiction published by Christian publishers, except publishers can’t be Christian. Only authors can.

Christian fiction might be novels published by members of the Evangelical Christian Publishers Association (ECPA), but that excludes self-published authors and non-evangelical publishers targeting a specific denomination, such as Roman Catholic.

There is also the fact that most major ECPA publishers are owned by multinational media conglomerates. For example, Thomas Nelson (who publish the New King James version of the Bible) and Zondervan (who publish the New International Version of the Bible) are both owned by HarperCollins, which is a subsidiary of News Corp (founded by Rupert Murdoch and now a listed company).

No, Christian fiction isn’t defined by the publisher.

Is Christian Fiction Defined by an Organisation?

Last week’s post discussed the demise of the CBA and the new Christian Retail Association (CRA). There is a view that there were “CBA guidelines” on acceptable content in Christian fiction. If such guidelines ever existed, I’ve never found them.

I suspect the idea of “CBA guidelines” developed back when Lifeway and Family Christian Stores were the two major US sales outlets for Christian books, with over 400 stores across the USA. Traditional publishers had to ensure they only published books they were confident they’d be able to sell into Lifeway and FCS. Afer all, Lifeway Christian Stores were known for refusing to stock certain books.

The other prominent organisation in Christian publishing is the US-based Evangelical Christian Publishers Association (ECPA). The ECPA require that books entered for the Christian Book Awards must:

include explicit Christian content, an overtly Christian message, and/or a distinctively Christian world view (e.g., allegorical fiction)

Entries must also be consistent with the ECPA Statement of Faith, which is essentially the same as the Statement of Faith of the National Association of Evangelicals. But that focuses on the core beliefs of Christians. The rules make no other mention of content. However, awards don’t include fiction: novels are instead eligible for the Christy Award (which has no content guidelines).

Confusingly, Christian Book Awards can be shortened to CBA. This could give rise to the confusion over “CBA guidelines”.

But not, Christian fiction isn’t defined by an organisation.

Is Christian Fiction Defined by the Bookseller?

Some say Christian fiction is fiction sold in Christian bookstores, members of the CBA (The Association for Christian Retail, formerly the Christian Booksellers Association), the CRA (Christian Retail Association) or an international equivalent.

But Christian stores tend to only stock books from major ECPA publishers which ignores self-published authors, non-evangelical publishers, and many small publishers. And fiction from ECPA publishers isn’t just sold at CBA stores—it’s also sold at mainstream booksellers such as Barnes & Noble and Amazon, and at big box stores such as Target and Walmart.

No, Christian fiction isn’t defined by where it’s sold.

Is Christian Fiction Defined by the Content?

A lot of people seem to define Christian fiction—especially Christian romance—by the content. But it’s often a list of content which shouldn’t be included: no sex. No graphic violence. No swearing. No smoking. No drugs. No gambling. Perhaps no dancing and no alcohol and no mention of Halloween. But Christianity is about what we believe, not what we do (or don’t do).

While there are no overarching “CBA guidelines”, what I have found is that different publishers have different guidelines. Sometimes, different imprints from the same publisher have different guidelines. For example, Love Inspired (an imprint of HarperCollins Christian Publishing) do not permit any alcohol consumption, yet Thomas Nelson (another HCCP imprint) published The Memory of You by Catherine West, in which the main character is part-owner in a vineyard.

No, Christian fiction isn’t defined by the content.

Is Christian Fiction Defined by the World View?

Some say Christian fiction is those novels written from a Christian world view. That sounds reasonable . . . if we could agree on “writing from a Christian world view” means. One view is that a Christian world view means the absence of postmodernism:

What is postmodernism? In simplest terms, it means we no longer believe in absolutes. Everything is relative . . . In postmodern literature, the author isn’t saying anything . . . you, the reader, have to decide what the text is saying to you.
– Writing to a Post-Christian World, Ann Tatlock

That makes sense to me. However, there are lots of books written by Christians that share a Christian world view, but which target the general market. The Testament by John Grisham is one of my favourite examples of this.

But all these things are telling us what Christian fiction isn’t.

Not what it is.

So what is Christian Fiction? You tell me. And I’ll be back to give you my definition next week.

What is a Christian Book?
Introducing the Christian Retail Association

Publishing News | Introducing the Christian Retail Association

There have been several major changes in the Christian publishing market over the last few years, including the rise of Amazon as a publisher and retailer of Christian books, and the demise of Family Christian Stores and Lifeway Stores.

Many Christian publishers have pulled back on the number of books they publish, especially fiction. There has been corresponding rise in the number of authors self-publishing their books on Amazon and other online platforms … and a rise in the number of wolves (aka vanity presses) seeking to profit from the self-publishing revolution.

What remained stable was the CBA.

The CBA, the Association for Christian Retail, was established in 1950 as the Christian Bookseller’s Association, the faith version of the American Booksellers Association. Both organisations exist to support American book retailers. Publishers are represented by the Evangelical Christian Publishers Association (ECPA) and the Christian Indie Publishers Association (previously the Christian Small Publishers Association).

The CBA acted as an intermediary between publishers, distributors, and retailers, helping retailers to find and stock Christian products. They hosted an annual international convention for Christian retailers, UNITE (previously the International Christian Retailing Show).

What is the Christian Retail Association and what's happened to the CBA? #ChristianPublishing #PublishingNews Click To Tweet

In 2018, attendees were promised expense rebates, but many attendees reported their claims were rejected. Many executives left, and a new owner invested over $700,000 in the organisation. But the new owner reports he acquired a “failing and irrelevant organisation” with a “toxic” internal environment. Their website is currently “under construction”, so there may be behind-the-scenes attempts to resurrect the organisation.

The CRA—the Christian Retailers Association—is apparently rising to fill the gap.

What is the Christian Retail Association?

The CRA is the Christian Retail Association. Bob Munce was established the CRA in 2018 as rumours surfaced of financial instability in the CBA. The CRA website says:

Christian Retail Association, Inc. (CRA) is a non-profit ministry founded by Munce Group President Bob Munce in an ongoing effort to better serve independent Christian retailers. CRA was created to help build community within the Christian retail industry and to bring beneficial assets to store owners and vendors alike.

Retailers appear to have quickly adapted to the change. Kevin Ferguson, owner of Willamette Valley Christian Supply, says:

“There is no such thing as CBA. The language now is different; there’s been a transfer of terminology—it’s CRA.”

The CRA has already held its first trade show, the Christian Product Expo (CPE). The second, CPE International, is planned for late August.

How does this affect Christian writers?

First, the demise of the CBA and the formation of the Christian Retail Association is only an issue in the USA. The CBA is (was?) a US organisation serving the US market. Other countries such as Australia and New Zealand have their own equivalents of the CBA—e.g. the CBAA in Australia and the CBANZ in New Zealand.

Second, the two major US Christian bookstore chains have both closed in the last few years, pushing more customers online—to Amazon, or Christian Book Distributors.

Third, Christian books aren’t only sold in Christian bookstores. Barnes & Noble stores all have a Christian section. Walmart and Target both sell a small, curated selection of Christian books. Amazon sells Christian books, as do Amazon’s online competitors.

And that’s not just ebooks. I recently saw a blog post (but forgot to copy the reference) that estimated that Amazon sells 60% of all paper books sold in America. This doesn’t surprise me.

If you want to support Christian writers, distributors, and retailers, you can:

Buy epub ebooks and hard copies online from Christian Book*.

Buy in person from your local independent Christian bookstore.

Support independent Christian authors by buying their books.

*Christian Book are going through their own rebranding exercise. Founded in 1978 as Christian Book Distributors, they have always owned the www.christianbook.com website, and have historically been known as CBD. I initially misinterpreted that as central business district, but CBD is apparently also an acronym for cannabis. It’s that meaning that now tops the search engine results for searches for CBD, which is why Christian Book have rebranded. I guess they assume CBD customers are not CBD users. Or vice versa.

What won’t change?

  • Writers will still write Christian books.
  • Publishers will still publish Christian books.
  • Stores will still sell Christian books.
  • Readers will still buy Christian books

Do you think these industry changes will impact your reading, writing, or publishing activities?

Introducing the Christian Retail Association
Amazon Geoblocking

Geoblocking on Amazon: 13 Reasons Why I Don’t Want to Switch from Amazon.com to Amazon Australia

Authors (and readers) woke up over the weekend and found that thousands of books had disappeared from the Amazon store.

Only they hadn’t. Really. Except they had. Let’s take a look …

Here is the paperback version of Solo Tu by Narelle Atkins on Amazon.com:

It’s USD 8.99, which is around NZ 13.36 (or NZD 15.36 including sales tax). Here is the sales page on Amazon Australia:

Note the price difference for the paperback? That $26.01 is a lot more expensive than buying the equivalent book from Amazon US, even allowing for New Zealand sales tax (GST) and exchange rate differences.

And what do I get I search for the same book on Amazon US? Nothing. That’s right. Nothing.

But if I go back to the Kindle sales page on Amazon Australia and tweak the website address to read “.com” instead of “.com.au”, here’s what I get:

Voila! The Kindle version is for sale. But I can’t buy it, and I can’t see the price.

Amazon geoblocking is a half-baked solution to a non-problem which many authors are blaming for huge losses in income … which makes sense. How can Amazon customers buy or borrow books that don’t exist?

Update

I can now see Solo Tu on Amazon.com again, and it’s available to buy. Let’s hope it stays that way, because I don’t want to be forced to move … as I explain below.

What is causing this?

There are currently two theories making the rounds. It could be that both are correct:

  1. Amazon is having database troubles.
  2. Amazon is using geoblocking to force customers to buy from their “local” store.

Amazon is having database troubles

It’s no secret that Amazon’s cloud databases are built on Oracle systems. It’s also no secret that Amazon have announced they’ll be moving away from Oracle by the end of 2020. Apparently, Amazon made a big shift in their databases on 1 November 2018, and the theory is this has messed with a lot of books.

This may be related to the problems with the recent move from CreateSpace to KDP Print. This is a move that’s been anticipated for a couple of years. It finally happened in September, with all authors forced to make the move.

But it isn’t only KDP Print or KDP Select books that are affected. Books from major trade publishers are also affected, although those seem to come and go. Two days ago, I was unable to buy the Kindle version of Transcription by Kate Atkinson at the Amazon US store. Today, I can.

Amazon is using geoblocking to force readers to buy from their country stores

Yes, I understand the financial rationale. If Amazon goes to the trouble and expense of setting up a Kindle store and/or a physical distribution centre in a country, then they want customers to buy from that store, not from the US store. There is also the teeny tiny issue of the Australian government believing Amazon should pay sales tax on sales made in Australia to Australians, but let’s leave that to the side for the moment.

But geoblocking (restricting access based on the users IP address) isn’t the answer. Forcing readers to buy from “local” isn’t what’s best for the customer. If shopping from Amazon Australia was best for me, don’t they think I’d have switched years ago? This behaviour makes a lie of Amazon’s stated position as “Earth’s most customer-centric company“.

But Amazon geoblocking isn’t good for customers who buy books.

And anything that isn’t good for readers also isn’t good for authors, because it encourages people to read less, or to buy other books (you know, books Amazon.com will actually sell them). Or it gives them (me) the push they’ve needed to check out another ebook store, such as Kobo or iBooks. Or to actually work out how to borrow ebooks from my local library.

As I see it, readers appear to have four options:

  1. Give in to the geoblocking and switch to the local Amazon store for Kindle purchases.
  2. Work around the geoblocking and wwitch their default address to a US address (e.g. Amazon HQ).
  3. Do nothing.
  4. Buy from Kobo or iBooks.

I’ve discussed these briefly in Where Have All the eBooks Gone? at International Christian Fiction Writers. But here I want to go into more detail about why the obvious answer—switching to the local Amazon store—is not a viable option for many Amazon customers. It didn’t take me long to come up with 13 reasons why. Or why not:

  1. Existing Kindle Library
  2. More Variety
  3. Better Sales
  4. eBook Gifting
  5. Gift Cards
  6. Giveways
  7. Reviews
  8. Currency Conversion
  9. Affiliate Links
  10. Embed Codes
  11. Kindle Family
  12. Audible Subscriptions
  13. Other Subscriptions

Existing Kindle Library

Switching from Amazon.com to Amazon. com.au means customers run the risk of losing access to their Amazon.com purchases. It shouldn’t happen, in theory, but I’ve heard of people having their entire Kindle purchase history wiped, so anything is possible.

Last time I checked, my Amazon.com purchases didn’t show. Now they do. Amazon assures me it’s to my benefit to change, but I disagree.

More Variety

Amazon.com has a wider variety of Kindle books available. Well, it did last week. It still does—it’s just I can’t buy most of them from Amazon.com. I’ve seen many complaints that customers can’t buy specialised books in the Australian store.

Better Sales

A lot of sales are only available at the US site, including free downloads.

Note that only US and UK residents can benefit from Kindle Countdown deals, which is annoying. But switching to Amazon Australia won’t get me Countdown deals either, so that’s a moot point.

ebook Gifting

Amazon US allows ebook gifting. The Australian site does not. You can check this in the screenshots above: the US site has a “Give as GIft” button below the buy button. This is missing from the Australian site.

Many authors, influencers, and bloggers (including me) like to be able to gift Kindle books to friends, fans, or contest winners.

Gift Cards

Amazon US allows customers to buy and give away gift cards. Authors, influencers, and bloggers often use gift cards as an incentive to get readers to perform some action e.g. comment on a blog post, or write a review (but not an Amazon review, as that would be against Amazon’s reviewing guidelines).

Giveaways

Amazon US allows customers to give away books as a promotional tool. Amazon Australia does not offer this feature.

Reviews

Customers have to spend USD 50 per year on an Amazon site in order to be able to review (something I’ve previously discussed). If I’m forced to move from the US to the Australian site, the time will soon come when I’m no longer able to review on the US site. Reviews have more visibility on the US site, and book promotion organisations require a minimum number of Amazon US reviews before they’ll promote a book. Restricting reviewers will make that target harder to meet.

Currency Conversion

Many Amazon customers are also Amazon affiliates or Amazon sellers. It makes sense for them to shop in the same currency they earn in. For most people, this is US dollars, because Amazon.com is the biggest store.

Affiliate Earnings

I’m an Amazon affiliate, which means if you click one of my links and buy something on Amazon, they’ll pay me a commission of around 4% for referring you as a customer. I don’t earn a lot in affiliate income, but what I do earn is paid out as Amazon US gift vouchers. I could get paid direct to my bank account, but the minimum payment is higher and much of it would be taken as fees.

I’ve also signed up for the Amazon Australia affiliate scheme. It only pays out to Australian bank accounts … which I don’t have, because I’m not Australian. Because Australia and New Zealand are different countries. Like the United States of America and Canada are different countries. It seems Amazon doesn’t understand this relatively simple fact of geography.

Embed Codes

Amazon offers embed codes so bloggers can embed a sample of a book on their blog post, like this:

This embed code was copied from the Australian website, but leads back to the US site. That’s great for US customers, but means there is no incentive to switch to Amazon Australia.

Kindle Family

I don’t use Kindle Family, but it is a scheme which allows family members to effectively share a Kindle account. There is a catch: the family has to live together and shop at the same store. So if one family member tries to tell Amazon he or she lives in the US (to be able to access the US store), then the Family is broken and they can no longer share the account.

Audible Subscriptions

Audible (Amazon audiobook) subscriptions are still on Amazon US. Yes, customers can transfer them, but that’s an added hassle, and one more place for things to go wrong.

Other Subscriptions

Some Amazon users subscribe to newspapers or magazines through Amazon US. I saw one person complain that when they tried to switch to Amazon Australia, they were warned their subscription would no longer be available.

So there you have it.

13 reasons why Amazon.com’s international customers will be reluctant to shift to their local store. I’m sure most international customers will be affected by at least one reason—and that’s only the impact of shifting as a reader.

Of course, there is always the possibility that this geoblocking is a temporary accident, an unintended side-effect of Amazon’s database upgrades. I hope so. Because there are at least 13 reasons why geoblocking is a bad idea for international customers.

Are you affected by Amazon’s new geoblocking? Are you planning to shift or stay? Why?

Copyright for Writers—Understanding Copyright

#AuthorToolBoxBlogHop | Copyright for Writers—Understanding Copyright

This post is part of the monthly Author ToolBox Blog Hop, organised by Raimey Gallant. We now have over 40 blogs participating. To find more Blog Hop posts:

What is Copyright?

All writers need to understand the basics of copyright for two reasons:

      • So they know their rights in regard to the work they write and publish
      • So they do not infringe the rights of other creatives

So what is copyright?

In essence, copyright is the right to copy. (Sounds obvious, right?)

Copyright includes the right to reproduce, distribute, and display copyrighted works. It is a form of intellectual property, an asset that has monetary value. Copyright law is designed to protect the rights of those who create content.

What Does Copyright Cover?

Copyright covers original works, whether words, sounds, or images, and whether published or unpublished. This includes:

      • Books
      • Blog posts
      • Music
      • Lyrics
      • Movies
      • TV shows
      • Scripts
      • Plays
      • Speeches
      • Poems

Yes, copyright broad. Basically, copyright covers the creation of any original work, in any form.

There are a few things copyright doesn’t cover, such as:

      • Ideas
      • Book titles
      • Words

I’ll deal with these in a later post.

Who Owns the Copyright to a Published Book?

The author (well, they should). The author signs a contract with a publisher which licences specific rights. This licence gives the publisher the temporary right to reproduce, distribute, and display copyrighted works (i.e. to print and sell the book).

A good contract will specify what rights are included, e.g. the format of the book, the language, and the countries the book can be sold. It will also include how the author can get those rights back (e.g. so the author can self-publish the work). Never sign a contract that’s for life of copyright. That basically means the publisher owns the book, not you.

If you want to know more about the ins and outs of publishing contracts, I recommend Kristine Kathryn Rusch’s blog.

Copyright is Automatic

Copyright is automatic for work first published after 1 March 1989. Works do not have to have a © symbol or notice of copyright to be covered. The law is more complex for earlier work, so it’s best to assume a work is covered by copyright unless you have evidence to the contrary.

Copyright is International

All countries have laws relating to copyright. While there are minor differences (e.g. the length of copyright, whether you need to register copyright), the principles are the same, thanks to the Berne Convention.

There is a legal concept known as the long arm of the law. I thought this a cliché used in Western movies, but it apparently is a real thing. Author and lawyer Courtney Milan says:

you can be prosecuted by a state so long as you have “minimum contacts” with that state.

Milan was talking about online giveaways, not copyright law, but my unlegal interpretation* of long-arm jurisdiction is that anything you publish needs to abide by:

      • The copyright laws where you live.
      • The copyright laws where you publish.
      • The copyright laws where your readers live.

So a blog post (like this one) that attracts readers from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, the UK, and the US needs to comply with US copyright law. And Australian copyright law. And Canadian copyright law. And New Zealand copyright law. And … you get the picture.

Copyright is Universal

Fortunately, most of the principles are universal, thanks to the Berne Convention. Where things differ by country, my suggestion is to abide by the most conservative. So if a work under copyright in country A but not in country B, I suggest you treat the work as if it was still under copyright.

Here are two well-known examples:

      • The King James Bible
      • Peter Pan

The King James Bible

Most American Christians will tell you the King James Bible is out of copyright. However, it is still under copyright in the United Kingdom—copyright is held by the Crown i.e. HM Queen Elizabeth II. King James Bibles are published in the UK by the Crown’s patentee, Cambridge University Press.

So if it’s reasonable to assume your book might be purchased in the UK, it would be appropriate to include the appropriate copyright statement. (Not that I’ve ever heard of the Queen suing anyone for copyright infringement over the King James Bible. But it could happen.)

Note that it’s not the original text of the Bible which is subject to copyright, but the translation.

So all more modern versions of the Bible, including the New King James Version, are under copyright, because they are translations. Most modern translations allow authors to quote up to a specific number of verses without written permission as long as the follow specific guidelines. You can find up-to-date copyright and permission information by clicking on the relevant version at Bible Gateway.

Peter Pan

JM Barrie gifted the copyright to Peter Pan (the play and the later novelisation) to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children in 1929. That copyright originally expired in 1987, but the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 includes a clause that specifically states GOSH has a right to royalty in perpetuity in the UK for stage productions, broadcasting, or publication.

But that doesn’t apply internationally. The novel is considered to be in the public domain in most countries, although the play version is still in copyright in the US until 2023 (so if Hollywood wish to produce a Peter Pan movie, the producers must licence the rights from GOSH).

Copyright Infringement

Copyright infringement is a big deal. It’s against the law in the same way as stealing is against the law.

Plagiarism is quoting other people’s work without appropriate attribution.

Author Rachel Ann Nunes found her Christian romantic suspense novel, A Bid for Love, had been plagiarised by “Sam Taylor Mullens”. Mullens was later discovered to be Tiffanie Rushton, a teacher from Utah. She also indulged in identity theft, using the real names of her third-grade students to create fake accounts to review her own books. Yes, a real sweetie.

Rushton changed the point of view in A Big for Love from third person to first person, and added some sex scenes. Nunes started a GoFundMe page to fund her legal defence. It’s taken four years, but she’s finally been awarded the maximum statutory penalty, $150,000 (which doesn’t sound nearly enough for a case that’s taken four years).

Does This Mean I Can’t Use Copyrighted Material?

You can still use copyrighted material if you have written permission from the copyright holder (note that this may not be the original creator—Paul McCartney doesn’t own the rights to most of the 250+ songs he created with John Lennon).

You can also use copyrighted material without permission in certain specific circumstances, as outlined in the US doctrine of Fair Use.

I’ll be back next week to discuss Fair Use, and give some tips for using copyrighted material without getting into trouble.

Please note that I am not a lawyer, and this is not legal advice. There is a lot of great information about copyright on the internet, but none of it is legal advice. To get legal advice, you pay a lawyer licensed to practice in your state or country. 

What questions do you have about copyright?